We are now moving into an era of advanced healthcare in which wearable and implantable biochips will automatically adjust drug dosing in response to patient health conditions, greatly enabling the management of diseases and enhancing individualised therapy (Fig. 8A). Continuous drug monitoring has the great potential to revolutionize the precision medicine by providing real-time information about an individual's response to therapeutics (Fig. 8B upper) [J Pharm Anal 2021]. Regular therapeutic drug monitoring, however, relies on blood samples typically collected at peak, trough and intermediate points only for measurement, which is painful, cumbersome and lacking of real-time feedback (Fig. 8B down). To achieve continuous monitoring, at CenBRAIN, we are working on development of interdigitated electrodes (IDE)-based electrochemical biosensors for detection of a therapeutical anti-epileptic drug, carbamazepine, in seconds in human samples. The sensing element to capture carbamazepine can be a specific monoclonal antibody (ongoing work), or a specific molecular imprint polymer (MIP) Biosensors & Bioelectronics 2021, or a specific aptamer if to capture other interesting therapeutical drugs. On the other hand, we are also working on the use of BLI-optical biosensor for continuous therapeutic drug monitoring. Related Publications: J Pharm Anal 2021, Biosensors & Bioelectronics 2021, Analyst2020
Figure 8. (A) Cover image for review paper (Bian et al. J. Pharm. Anal., 2021) ;(B) future and current clinical practice.